A new viral disease known as monkeypox has been deemed a global health emergency. Even though this condition has existed for more than 50 years, the current increase in cases and the growing body of knowledge about it has forced practicing physicians to perform a targeted assessment. For a narrative review, the researchers offered a detailed overview of the epidemiology, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of monkeypox.
The orthopoxvirus that causes monkeypox is endemic throughout central and western Africa. A global health emergency was declared in July 2022 due to an outbreak in Asia, Europe, North America and South America in May and June 2022. Contact with an infected person or animal and contact with a contaminated object are all means by which the disease can be spread. Lymphadenopathy and prodromal flu-like illness are symptoms of the disease. A centrifugal rash that affects the face, palms, soles, and oral mucosa is common. The lesions develop in several phases. Complications including encephalitis, pneumonitis, eye disease, or bacterial skin infections were rare. Tests using the polymerase chain reaction are frequently used for confirmation. As of July 2022, there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, particularly for monkeypox, and most patients improve with symptomatic treatment. However, antiviral treatment should be considered for several groups of patients at risk of serious consequences.
To ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of this growing disease, emergency physicians must be fully aware of the onset, evaluation, and management of monkeypox.
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